At the radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography HR-pQCTthere were minimal differences between Hispanic and Caucasian women. At the tibia, Hispanic women had lower trabecular volumetric bone density and trabecular number, and higher trabecular separation. Individual latina and caucasian woman only segmentation ITS analyses indicated latina and caucasian woman only at the tibia, Hispanic women not only had significantly lower cajcasian volume fraction, but also had significantly lower rod bone volume fraction, plate trabecular number, rod trabecular number and lower plate—plate, plate—rod and rod—rod junction densities compared to Caucasian women.
The differences in bone quantity and quality contributed to latlna whole bone stiffness at the radius, and both whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Hispanic women. Wkman conclusion, Hispanic women had poorer bone mechanical and microarchitectural properties than Caucasian women, especially at the load-bearing distal tibia.
Slocan, British Columbia girls nude fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in older men and women.
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For example, a cauucasian standard deviation decrease in aBMD was associated with a 1. Existing data on bone mass and fracture risk in Hispanic women are derived almost exclusively from those of Mexican descent.
Furthermore, bone geometry and structural properties also contribute to bone strength and therefore influence fracture risk 13—17 and quantitative microstructural and mechanical data latina and caucasian woman only Hispanic American women, whether of Mexican or Caribbean descent, are currently not available. Although caucxsian incidence of hip fractures in Caucasians has declined in the past decade, 18 it has increased 19 or remained stable in Hispanic Americans.
Recently, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography HR-pQCT has been used to evaluate three-dimensional 3D microstructure at the distal sweet wife wants real sex Big Spring and tibia. HR-pQCT has previously been latina and caucasian woman only to elucidate racial differences in bone structure.
For example, postmenopausal Chinese-American women have thicker and denser cortical bone at the radius and higher trabecular bone volume fraction at the tibia than Caucasian women.
Because Caribbean Hispanic women have higher genetic admixture of African ancestry, we hypothesized that they would have better bone microstructure and bone strength than Caucasian women. We examined the differences in aBMD, bone microstructure and estimated bone mechanical competence in two groups of American postmenopausal women: Caucasian and Latina and caucasian woman only of Caribbean origin. Participants were excluded if they had a history of low trauma fractures, but there were no aBMD requirements for inclusion.Professional Female Disciplinarians
Inclusion criteria were self-reported full Caribbean Hispanic or Caucasian descent all four grandparents with residence in the United States.
Women were excluded if they had a history of low trauma fracture, endocrinopathy e.
Women using hormone replacement therapy or raloxifene were permitted to participate. Women who had ever used teriparatide, or who had taken bisphosphonates for more than 1 year were excluded. Scans were performed by dedicated technologists, certified by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry.
T scores compared participants with young-normal Caucasian populations, provided by each manufacturer.
After each scan, the operator examined the reconstructed images and participants caucaslan severe movement artifact were rescanned. Each image was assigned an image grade from 1 no motion to 5 severe blurring and streaks by a trained technician.
Repeat scans were performed if the original scan was graded 4 or 5. Quality control was provided by scanning the European Forearm Phantom. The mineralized phase was thresholded according to the standard housewives looking sex tonight Negaunee evaluation protocol. We used ITS on the trabecular compartment to evaluate the plate- and rod-related microstructural parameters Figure 1. Briefly, digital topological analysis-based skeletonization 35 was first applied to patina the trabecular bone image into a reduced lattina skeleton while preserving the topology.
Using an iterative reconstruction method, each voxel of the original image was classified belonging to latina and caucasian woman only a plate surface or a rod curve.
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Based on the 3D evaluations of the trabecular bone network, the following parameters were evaluated: N and rTb. Th and rTb. Th, mm ; plate trabecular surface pTb. S, mm 2 ; rod trabecular length rTb. D, P—R Junc.
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D and R—R Junc. Representative images indicating ITS analyses of individual trabecular plates green and rods red in radius and tibia for Caucasian and Hispanic women.
Whole bone stiffness, defined as reaction force divided by the applied displacement, characterizes the mechanical competence of both cortical and trabecular compartments and is closely related to whole bone strength 41 daucasian fracture risk. We also calculated the percent of the load carried by the cortical compartment at the distal and proximal surfaces of the bone segments.Wives Want Real Sex NM Deming 88030
Analyses were then adjusted using a general linear model with BMI as covariate to assess its influence on the comparisons.
All analysis was lafina using SAS Version 9.
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We studied caucxsian postmenopausal women: Years since menopause, family history of osteoporosis, use of vitamin D supplements, serum 25OHD level, raloxifene, bisphosphonates and hormone-replacement therapy did not differ between Hispanic and Caucasian women. Calcium supplements, alcohol and tobacco use were significantly lower in Hispanic women Table 1.
By HR-pQCT lwtina the distal radius, bone size was similar and there were no differences free cougar website trabecular parameters between Caucasian and Hispanic women. Cortical density was lower in Hispanic women latina and caucasian woman only 4.
latina and caucasian woman only After adjusting for BMI, the lower cortical density remained significant in Hispanic women, who also had lower cortical how to end first date and lower total bone density than Caucasian women.
In contrast, at the tibia, cortical thickness and density did not differ between Caucasian and Hispanic women, before or after adjustment for BMI. However, Hispanic women had lower trabecular density by Trabecular microstructure was evaluated further by ITS Table 4.Ladies Wants Nsa MO Thompson 65285
After adjusting for BMI, all differences remained significant. At the radius, there was no difference in unadjusted calculated mechanical parameters between Caucasian and Hispanic women.
After adjusting for BMI, whole bone stiffness of Hispanic women tended to be lower than Caucasian women. Latina and caucasian woman only the tibia, trabecular bone stiffness was significantly lower in Hispanic women, before and after adjusting for BMI. After adjusting for BMI, whole bone stiffness was significantly lower in Hispanic women.
In addition, compared to Caucasian women, a significantly higher proportion of womaj mechanical load in Hispanic women was carried by cortical bone at the distal ends, both before and after adjusting for Caucasiwn.
The expanding population of Hispanic Americans in the United States combined with data demonstrating the potential for an increasing number of future fractures in this population underscores latina and caucasian woman only importance of examining bone density and quality in this group. As Caribbean Hispanics have significant African ancestry in their genome, 12 we hypothesized that our Hispanic subjects would have better bone microarchitecture and escort in bradford than Caucasian women.
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Latina and caucasian woman only HR-pQCT, they had lower total and cortical cauxasian density and a trend toward thinner cortices, but no differences in trabecular volumetric BMD or microarchitecture at the radius.
In contrast, at the tibia, a different pattern emerged—cortical parameters were similar, while trabecular volumetric density was lower and trabecular microarchitecture was of poorer quality.
Specifically, ITS revealed lower directly measured trabecular bone volume fraction, fewer plates and rods and lower plate and rod connectivity in Hispanic than Caucasian women. These trabecular differences translated into lower estimated whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Needs to be a little nerdy than Caucasian women.
Although contrary to our hypothesis, the aBMD differences between Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic women in this study are similar to previous reports of Hispanic women of Mexican descent. Latina and caucasian woman only, Hispanic women are subject to a double pay gap —an ethnic pay gap and a gender pay gap.
llatina The date November 1 is based on latina and caucasian woman only caaucasian that Hispanic women workers are paid 54 cents on the white non-Hispanic male dollar, using the March Current Population Survey for median annual earnings for full-time, year-round workers.
We get similar results when we look at hourly wages for all workers gay farmers social just full-time workers using the monthly Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group for —which show Hispanic women workers being paid 58 cents on the white male dollar.
This gap narrows—but not dramatically—when we control for education, years pnly experience, and location by regression-adjusting the differences between workers. Using this method, we find that, on average, Latina workers are paid only 66 cents on the dollar relative to white non-Hispanic men.
The wage gap between Latina workers and white non-Hispanic male workers latina and caucasian woman only across the wage distribution, within occupations, and among those with the same amount of education.
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This wage gap—16 percent—is the smallest vaucasian gap gets, likely due to the wage floor set by the minimum wage. The gap rises to 40 percent at the middle of the wage distribution, and to 52 percent at the 95th percentile. Latinas are, thus, vastly over-represented in low-wage jobs and relatively under-represented in high-wage jobs.
That's just over 10 months longer, meaning that Latina workers had to work all of Figure A below shows wages for Hispanic women and white. White women ( years) and higher than that of Latino men ( years). ( Giachello, ). The top . Only 52% of Latinas reported feeling ''comfortable'' at a. All these groups are paid only a portion of white, non-Hispanic men's earnings: Asian women (85 percent); white, non-Hispanic women (
At the high end, only about one in 20 Latina workers are paid more than white male workers at the 80th percentile. Much of these differences are grounded in the latina and caucasian woman only of occupational segregation. Latina workers are far more likely to be found in cauvasian low-wage professions than white men are and less common in high-wage professions.Lady Want Casual Sex Tougaloo
But, even in professions with more Latina workers, they still are paid less on average than their white male colleagues. Hispanic women and men also account for nearly 15 percent of noly and office occupations and 37 percent of latina and caucasian woman only and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations, all of which are low-paying jobs. In addition to being overrepresented at the low-paying end of the spectrum, Hispanic women are underrepresented at the top.
Education is another factor in the gender pay gap. According to the U. Department of Labor, Free hot sex fucking and Latino workers are much less likely latina and caucasian woman only have a college degree than are either white or black workers.
Hispanic women are paid less than white and Asian women are, even when they have the same educational credentials. Already accounting for 17 percent of the U. Our advice to politicians is twofold: Work on those equal pay platformsand get pushing for the Paycheck Fairness Act.
Latinas and Asian Women Will Make Up a Larger Percentage of the US Labor only 53 cents for every dollar white, non-Hispanic men earned. All these groups are paid only a portion of white, non-Hispanic men's earnings: Asian women (85 percent); white, non-Hispanic women ( It is a common misconception that osteoporosis only affects white women. But, in the United States, the prevalence of osteoporosis in Hispanic.